KrisK
Posts: 6
Joined: Mon Jun 23, 2014 6:50 am

Expected range, 2013 i-MiEV, less than 200 km on it

Mon Jun 23, 2014 7:36 am

Hi All,

Brand new Canadian i-MiEV owner here - picked it up on Friday. It's a 2013 that was the showroom car so the car has been sitting in the showroom for a year. No idea if/how often the car was charged. Total km when I picked it up was less than 100 km. We drove casually on Friday and Saturday. Sunday we planned a longer trip (110 km = 68 miles) that we expected to do comfortably on the full charge. We were somewhat surprised (and a little terrified!) when we arrived at our halfway destination and had used up 8 bars plus a bit (8 remaining bars). We didn't have an opportunity to charge the car while we were there and an hour later we found ourselves heading home on half a tank with almost 60km to go. Long story short, we made it home after travelling 108.2km (67.2 miles) with the empty indicator flashing and the last bar flashing.

- Is there any way to check the real max range on a full charge? (ie. is my battery capacity lower than I expect)
--- Remaining Range (RR) gauge is really cool but not useful for this since it is based on current driving habits
--- I will post an update tomorrow with RR on a full charge
- Could the year in the showroom (possibly with a drained battery) hurt the max range? Should it have hurt it 30% in 1 year?

Information about our driving
- 27 Celius (80.6f) outside yesterday
- Rural driving in southern ontario
- Did not use AC, did not pre-cool the car
- ECO mode for the entire drive (E instead of D or B)
- The ECO meter was kept at half or lower.
- level ground speed was around 85km/h (53 mph)
- Windows down on the way there, up on the way back
- Radio off

Thanks,

--Kris

HParkEV
Posts: 85
Joined: Thu Jun 13, 2013 9:14 pm
Location: Toronto, Ontario

Re: Expected range, 2013 i-MiEV, less than 200 km on it

Mon Jun 23, 2014 8:06 am

Hi Kris,
As a fellow Ontarian, I drive my i-MiEV in very similar conditions as you do. At speeds of around 85km/h you should have done the 110km trip comfortably, with probably 2 bars remaining (flashing).
I can think of two issues here:
First of all, the 'fuel' gauge calibrates itself when you run the battery down to 1 or 2 bars and then fully recharge. This is something that Mitsubishi recommends should happen about once a month. Since your car has sat around for a long time, the gauge is probably out of calibration, and it is possible that if you try this trip again now, you will get a lot more out of the battery. I imagine, when the gauge is out of calibration it will err on the conservative side and show you less battery remaining than there actually was.
Secondly, lithium ion batteries that sit around for a long time should be stored at low state of charge - I think 3 to 5 bars is the recommended range for long term storage. Cars that are in dealer's showrooms are usually fully charged (as charging the battery is usually what they do when they PDI the car) - this means that the battery is under some 'stress' during that sitting around time, and it will loose a little capacity, especially if it was sitting at higher ambient temperatures. Since it sat mostly over the winter months, I would not loose too much sleep about it, as it spent most of its time at low(ish) temperatures, even if it was in the showroom.
Another factor you may not have thought about is wind - if your initial half of the trip was against wind, it is possible that the car used more battery than you would expect for the distance you traveled. At 85km/h going against even a modest 15km/h wind will mean significantly more power consumption, which you will hopefully re-coup on your way back.
And finally, have you checked the tire pressures? About 10% over the recommended 36psi is what I would recommend for great range, and reasonable comfort and tire wear.
Martin
2012 Ocean Blue SE (premium) Canada-spec
02/2012 production, 06/2013 delivery
Upgraded EVSE

KrisK
Posts: 6
Joined: Mon Jun 23, 2014 6:50 am

Re: Expected range, 2013 i-MiEV, less than 200 km on it

Mon Jun 23, 2014 8:30 am

Hi Martin,

Thanks for your reply! Temperature / Wind yesterday was pretty good - I'd claim yesterday was fairly ideal for driving conditions. Tire pressure is a good thought - I didn't check tire pressure myself after picking up the car. A couple of side questions if that popped into my head reading your reply: Any idea if the battery may improve after a couple of charge cycles? (assuming it was sitting around for a while before I picked it up). Also, empirically, how much of a difference does ECO mode make in max range? I can definitely feel the difference in accelerator behaviour between E and D/B, however I'm curious to know if I can achieve ECO results with a lighter foot in D/B.

I'll try not to loose much sleep over it :)

--Kris

HParkEV
Posts: 85
Joined: Thu Jun 13, 2013 9:14 pm
Location: Toronto, Ontario

Re: Expected range, 2013 i-MiEV, less than 200 km on it

Mon Jun 23, 2014 9:17 am

I'm not sure the battery 'improves' from cycling it after a long period of not being used, that is a question for li-ion experts. However, the accuracy of the gauge will improve for sure when you cycle the battery from almost empty to full.
The way the battery capacity is checked, and the state of charge meter calibrated, is by measuring how much power the battery accepts when fully charged from a low state of charge.

The ECO mode does not make any difference in max range of the car - what it does is makes it easier for you to drive the car more efficiently in order to achieve better range. It does have its pitfalls though - the biggest one being that with the increased regeneration when you let off the accelerator, you tend to slow down sometimes a lot more than you intended to. Although the battery does recapture some of the energy back, it is not an efficient way to drive. In order to achieve max range you should take advantage of coasting as much as possible, which means NOT using regen, just finding that spot when the needle is in between the blue and green zones. Only go into the blue 'Charge' zone when you do need to slow down or stop because of traffic, red light, etc. Finding that coasting spot is a little easier when you are in Eco mode since the pedal is easier to modulate (slower response), but if you have a tendency to sometimes let off the accelerator fully, you will scrub off your speed a lot faster in Eco than in D.
The disadvantage of D mode on the other hand, is that you tend to overshoot your intended speed when accelerating - if you intended to drive at 85km/h you end up driving at 95 or more after climbing a hill or accelerating from a red light, just because the controller adds more power as your speed climbs even though you are not pressing the accelerator any deeper - it is trying to emulate the behaviour of an ICE.
You can find a lot of tips on maximizing range if you just google 'hypermiling', much of the advice for ICE hypermiling applies equally to EV drivers.

Also wanted to add that the beauty of the i-MiEV, and all other EV's is that you can always increase range by slowing down - if you are driving around an you find that you will be tight on range, just slow down 10 or 20 km/h and you will find it adds to your range very significantly (of course the RR gauge will only show the increased range much later). There have been cases of people getting over 200km on a charge, just by driving slow - in that case it was about 50km/h reasonably steady. Radio usage makes no detectable difference in range, your speed and heater/ac usage is what affects it the most.
2012 Ocean Blue SE (premium) Canada-spec
02/2012 production, 06/2013 delivery
Upgraded EVSE

KrisK
Posts: 6
Joined: Mon Jun 23, 2014 6:50 am

Re: Expected range, 2013 i-MiEV, less than 200 km on it

Mon Jun 23, 2014 11:02 am

Thanks for the info! So, what would be the best way for me to benchmark my i-MiEVs performance compared to expected performance (from say, the FAQ on the official site)? My concern is that I'm getting X% lower than expected, and that it will only be exacerbated in the winter. That being said, my two-way commute is 50km and worst case I can change at work in the winter, so even if I'm getting 48km max range in the winter I'd be ok. Mostly I want to make sure my vehicle (which sat around for a year) is performing as expected.

--Kris

Malm
Posts: 449
Joined: Mon Jul 22, 2013 12:16 pm
Location: Tábua - Portugal

Re: Expected range, 2013 i-MiEV, less than 200 km on it

Mon Jun 23, 2014 11:08 am

I have made a 200 km trip with one charge and three bars left. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=baAiN2jFEcc
I believe doing this trip with only 77,5% (maybe less) of SoC is unbeatable.
Not more then 40 km/h and going down something like 500 m.

Driving at 85 km/h, I think 110 km are very good. The difference between ending a trip with one or two bars can be only 0,5% of SoC. I shouldn't expect more then that, specially if we can't keep constant speed.
Last edited by Malm on Mon Jun 23, 2014 11:23 am, edited 1 time in total.
Riding an i-Miev since 4/2011 in Portugal, 100.000 kms.

MLucas
Posts: 833
Joined: Thu Jun 07, 2012 8:52 am
Location: Niagara on the Lake, Ontario, Canada

Re: Expected range, 2013 i-MiEV, less than 200 km on it

Mon Jun 23, 2014 11:09 am

KrisK wrote:Thanks for the info! So, what would be the best way for me to benchmark my i-MiEVs performance compared to expected performance (from say, the FAQ on the official site)? My concern is that I'm getting X% lower than expected, and that it will only be exacerbated in the winter. That being said, my two-way commute is 50km and worst case I can change at work in the winter, so even if I'm getting 48km max range in the winter I'd be ok. Mostly I want to make sure my vehicle (which sat around for a year) is performing as expected.

--Kris


There isn't much of a benchmark because there are too many variables to baseline. Driving style, temperature, terrain, tire pressure, battery condition, etc. You'll be able to baseline it yourself as you drive it everyday. For example, I know on my daily commute where I lose the first bar - in the winter its at one point and in summer its a little farther down the road. Gauge a consistent pattern and you'll know how well your car is doing. You can always invest in the CanIon and a tablet with BlueTooth to get a good picture of how your car is really doing.

What part of Southern Ontario - that's a big place. :D

Like Dylan...I went electric.

  • Purchased: June 29th, 2012
  • Mileage on June 29th, 2013 - 25,431 km / 15,802 miles
  • Mileage on June 29th, 2014 - 51,286 km / 32,616 miles

List of Oil Spills: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oil_spills

HParkEV
Posts: 85
Joined: Thu Jun 13, 2013 9:14 pm
Location: Toronto, Ontario

Re: Expected range, 2013 i-MiEV, less than 200 km on it

Mon Jun 23, 2014 11:35 am

KrisK wrote:Thanks for the info! So, what would be the best way for me to benchmark my i-MiEVs performance compared to expected performance (from say, the FAQ on the official site)? My concern is that I'm getting X% lower than expected, and that it will only be exacerbated in the winter. ...


I think you are getting fairly close to what is expected. If you read the Mitsu FAQ site carefully, their 'ideal' conditions indicate a speed of 60km/h at 25 degrees Celsius. They indicate a range of about 160km under these conditions.
http://www.mitsubishi-motors.ca/en/i-miev/faq/

Since you were driving about 85km/h, you could expect 30% less range (160km * 0.7 = 112km) for 40% greater speed.

In my experience, having survived the last winter with my i-MiEV, I got 50km range even on the nastiest, coldest days by keeping the heat just high enough to keep the windows clear. When I wanted more comfort and a pre-heated car, I plugged in at work. With 120V charging the pre-heating is not super cosy warm, but it does make a significant dent in how much you need to use battery power to get the windows clear and interior reasonably comfortable.
2012 Ocean Blue SE (premium) Canada-spec
02/2012 production, 06/2013 delivery
Upgraded EVSE

aarond12
Posts: 388
Joined: Fri Jan 25, 2013 2:21 pm
Location: Dallas, TX

Re: Expected range, 2013 i-MiEV, less than 200 km on it

Mon Jun 23, 2014 12:05 pm

I've found that my experience driving the car has been the biggest increase in range. There is a certain amount of time required to "unlearn" some of the driving techniques you use with a gas-powered car. For example, slowing down going up hills and speeding up going down them. With gas cars, we typically learn to keep your speed steady. Heck, that's what cruise control is! However, that's kinda inefficient.

With practice, you will gain more range and confidence.
2015 Nissan LEAF S

jray3
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Joined: Tue Dec 06, 2011 1:05 am
Location: Tacoma area, WA
Contact: Website

Re: Expected range, 2013 i-MiEV, less than 200 km on it

Mon Jun 23, 2014 2:54 pm

Welcome Kris, I don't have studies ready to cite, but do believe that like other battery types, our lithiums will gradually improve with use after a long dormancy.

Your driving skills certainly will. I've considered myself a hypermiler for years, but only hypermiled when I wanted to. (Yeah yeah, I may be a speed demon, but I can stop driving like a jackrabbit any time I want to...).

The i has a way of curing this when you realize that by avoiding a single charging stop on any significant trip, you save more time by driving slower. I do a 55 mile/89 km round trip on most Saturdays that can't be accomplished aggressively without a charging stop, but is easily done with 2-3 bars remaining if one navigates sedately. (Disclaimer- on the West Coast I-5 Electric Highway from Tacoma-Portland, the DCFC spacing of 21-36 miles means that an i-MiEV can't skip a station with 80% SOC, but you can go fast between 'em!) Watching CanION a few times makes you a better driver for any vehicle even after the display goes dark. As proof, this past weekend on a 360 mile round trip to Grandma's in our 14 year-old, 175 kilomile minivan, I got over 24 mpg on a journey that for years has averaged 21-22 mpg. Simply staying out of the 'wolf packs' of aggressive drivers and getting off the gas as soon as one sees brake lights far ahead makes for a smoother drive and didn't cost any noticeable time. Timing the traffic lights and making strategic highway lane changes rather than reflexively jumping into every opening that appears let this tortoise beat several impatient hares down the road.

I still don't have the patience to stay behind a professional truck or bus driver for as long as I could, preferring to have a change of view. I'm not advocating danger-close drafting, but CanION helps one to measure the benefits of drafting even at reasonable following distances..
2012 i-SE "MR BEAN" 110,300 miles
2016 KIA SOUL EV, 90 kW, 27 kWh, 34k miles
2000 Mazda Miata EV, 78 kW, 17 kWh
1983 Grumman Kurbwatt EV,170 kW, 32 kWh
1983 Mazda RX-7 EV 43 kW 10 kWh
1971 "Karmann Eclectric" EV 240 kW 19 kWh

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